Jerry Thomas' Bartender's Guide

Solferino Coloring.
Take 1 ounce of solferino.
1 gallon of alcohol (95 per cent).
Put them in a bottle, shake well, and in 24 hours it
will be ready for use.

Caramel.
Take 7 pounds of loaf-sugar.
1 pint of water.

Crush and dissolve the sugar in the water ; boil it in a 5-gallon copper kettle, stirring occasionally, until it gets brown ; when it begins to burn, reduce the fire; let it burn until the smoke becomes offensive to the eyes ; then try it by dipping a rod into it, and letting a few drops fall into a glass of cold water ; if it settles at the bottom and crystallizes, so that it will crack, it is done. Then take about half gallon luke-warm water, and pour it in by degrees, stirring all the time. When thoroughly mixed, filter it while hot through a coarse flannel filter.

Tincture of Orange Peel.
Take 1 pound of dried orange peel (ground).
1 gallon of spirits (95 per cent.).
Place them in a closely corked vessel for 10 days.
Strain and bottle for use.

Tincture of Lemon Peel.
Cut into small chips the peel of 12 large lemons.
Place it in a glass jar and pour over it 1 gallon spirits,
70 per cent. Let it stand until the lemon peel has
all sunk to the bottom of the liquor. It is then
ready for use without either filtering or straining.

Tincture of Cloves.
Take 1 pound of ground cloves ; warm them over a fire until quite hot; put them quickly into a jar, pour on them 1 gallon 95 per cent, alcohol, cover them airtight, and let them stand for 10 days. Draw off into bottles and cork close.

Tincture of Cinnamon.
Place 2 pounds of ground cinnamon into a jar with 1 gallon 95 per cent, alcohol, closely covered. At the end of 8 days strain the liquor clear; wash the sediment with 1 quart proof spirits; strain it; mix the two liquors together, and filter through blotting paper.

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